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Al Baghdadi — a low profile terrorist boss

During his imprisonment at the American-run Camp Bucca, he became radicalised and pledged allegiance to Al Zarqawi

Image Credit: AP
Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi delivering a sermon at a mosque in Iraq during his public appearance in this video grab posted on a militant website on July 5, 2014.
Gulf News

Baghdad: Discreet in his youth and invisible as the world’s most wanted man, Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi rose through the ranks quietly to become the undisputed global leader of terrorism. The Russian army said on Friday that Al Baghdadi may have been killed in a May 28 air strike near the militants’ Syria stronghold of Raqqa, although there was no immediate confirmation from his Daesh group or the US-led coalition battling Daesh in Syria and Iraq.

The 46-year-old Iraqi-born leader of Daesh, nicknamed “The Ghost”, has not been seen in public since he proclaimed himself as so-called “caliph” in the Iraqi city of Mosul three years ago.

The fortunes of his so-called “caliphate” have since turned — with massive simultaneous offensives by allied forces against both Mosul and Raqqa.

The world’s most-wanted man has been rumoured wounded or killed a number of times in the past.

The last sign of life he gave was in November last year after Iraqi forces supported by the aerial might of the coalition launched their reconquest of Mosul, the country’s second city.

In an audio recording, he urged his men to defend Mosul to the bitter end and Iraqi elite forces have gained huge ground but are still battling diehard militants around the Old City.

Al Baghdadi was said to have left Mosul earlier this year and has since been reportedly spotted in various areas near the Syrian-Iraqi border.

But his whereabouts were never confirmed.

“It is rather remarkable that the leader of the most image-conscious terrorist group is so low-key in terms of his own publicity,” said Patrick Skinner, an analyst with the Soufan Group intelligence consultancy and a former CIA case officer.


That low profile — a perfect antithesis to Osama Bin Laden — is partly what Al Baghdadi, who has a $25 million US bounty on his head, has owed his rise as well as his survival to.

Al Baghdadi was born Ebrahim Awad Al Badri to a modest family in Samarra, north of Baghdad.

An introvert, he was mostly known locally for his skills as a footballer, a sport his group would later target as a product of the Western society militants claim to despise.

Al Baghdadi’s high school results were too modest to undertake a law degree and his eyesight too bad to join the army so he moved to the capital to study Islam, settling in the neighbourhood of Tobchi.

“He comes across as someone who was never brilliant but was patient and hard-working,” said Sofia Amara, author of a recently-released documentary that unveiled exclusive documents on Al Baghdadi.

“He had a vision, early on, of where he wanted to go and what kind of organisation he wanted to create,” she said. “He is a secret planner.”

After US-led forces invaded Iraq in 2003, he founded his own insurgent outfit.


It never carried out major attacks, however, and by the time he was arrested in February 2004 and detained at the Camp Bucca facility, he was still very much a second or third-tier militant.

The US prison in southern Iraq, which was later dubbed “the University of Jihad”, was where he became radicalised and started showing signs of the leader he is now.

“People there realised that this nobody, this shy guy was an astute strategist,” Amara said.

He was released at the end of 2004 for lack of evidence. Iraqi security services arrested him twice subsequently, in 2007 and 2012, but let him go because they did not know who he was.

In 2005, after his release from Bucca, he pledged allegiance to Abu Musab Al Zarqawi, the brutal leader of Al Qaida.

Al Zarqawi was killed in 2006 and Al Baghdadi took over from his successor, who was also eliminated, in 2010.

He revived the fortunes of Iraq’s struggling Al Qaida affiliate, the ‘Islamic State of Iraq’ (ISI), turning it into the independent Daesh group, expanding into Syria in 2013 and then launching its sweeping offensive in Iraq in 2014.

Al Baghdadi grew up in a family divided between a religious clan and another of officers loyal to Saddam Hussein’s secular Baath Party.

Years later, he incorporated the ex-Baathists his predecessors had either fought or ignored into his organisation.

It gave his leadership the military legitimacy he personally lacked and formed a solid backbone for the future Daesh group, whose extremist religious propaganda was combined with formidable guerrilla efficiency.

Uncharismatic and an average orator, Al Baghdadi was described by his repudiated ex-wife Saja Al Dulaimi, who now lives in Lebanon, as a “normal family man” who was good with children.

Al Baghdadi is thought to have had three wives, Asma Al Kubaysi, Isra Al Qaysi — from Iraq and Syria — and another, more recent, from the Gulf.

He has also been accused of having repeatedly raped girls and women he kept as sex slaves, including a pre-teen Yazidi girl and the US aid worker Kayla Mueller who was subsequently killed.