The right-handed opener, who scored an unbeaten 111 off 61 balls, was particularly harsh on Carlos Brathwaite, Fabian Allen and Khary Pierre, hitting each of them for a couple of sixes en route to his fourth century — the most by any batsman in T20Is — in just 58 balls.
Sharma also became the leading Indian scorer in T20Is as he helped the hosts post 195/2 in their 20 overs.
The 31-year-old now has 2,203 runs in 86 matches, surpassing regular captain Virat Kohli (2,102 runs). He is now the second-highest scorer in the world behind New Zealand’s Martin Guptill, on 2,271 runs.
Sharma then returned to marshal his bowlers who restricted the tourists to 124-9 to gain an unassailable 2-0 lead in the three-match series.
The tourists needed someone from their top order to try to match Sharma’s effort, but Khaleel Ahmed (2-30) and Kuldeep Yadav (2-32) nipped any such prospects in the bud.
Darren Bravo’s 23 was the top score in West Indies’ timid reply to the huge target.
Earlier, having elected to field, West Indies initially managed to restrain Sharma and his opening partner Shikhar Dhawan, conceding only nine runs in the first four overs.
Pacer Oshane Thomas started proceedings with a maiden, clocking 146km/h in the last ball of the first over.
Sharma broke loose in the fifth over when he clobbered Oshane Thomas for the first of his seven sixes at the newly inaugurated A.B. Vajpayee Cricket Stadium, which debuted as an international venue with the match.
Dhawan made a brisk 43, but found himself playing second fiddle to the rampaging Rohit, who also hit eight fours, in their 123-run stand for the opening partnership.
A one-handed shot off Pierre that ran to the third man boundary illustrated the form Rohit, who also took three catches, was in. After Dhawan and a promoted Rishabh Pant fell in quick succession, K.L. Rahul, who made 26 not out off 14 balls, combined with his captain to punish the West Indies attack.
Sharma was dropped by Khary Pierre when he was batting on 27 with the bowler claiming he had completed the catch, but action replays showing the ball bounced before reaching Pierre.
India 195/2 in 20 overs (Rohit Sharma 111 not out, Shikhar Dhawan 43; Fabian Allen 1/33)
West Indies 124/9 in 20 overs (Darren Bravo 23, Keemo Paul 20; B. Kumar 2/12) by 71 runs