US birth
A mother holds the hand of her infant daughter in East Amherst, New York, on Dec. 5, 2020. The birthrate in the United States has fallen by about 15 per cent since its recent peak in 2007. Image Credit: NYT

York, UK: Mothers in communities in the UK and Uganda have different attitudes toward parenting, but while in a group level the experience and development of their newborn babies sometimes align with parenting attitudes, it did not always show such variation, a new study shows.

According to the research published in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Eve Holden and Katie Slocombe of the University of York, UK, and colleagues, early life experiences, including those shaped by parental behaviours, are known to affect infant learning and development.

Cultural variations

There is considerable cultural variation in parenting practices, which may be underpinned by varying attitudes toward parenting and infant development.

Most studies examining how parenting impacts infant development rely on attitude questionnaires or observations of behaviour in a single context. It has been unclear whether these attitudes or behaviour snapshots are representative of behaviour in broader contexts.

In the latest work, the researchers studied 53 mother-infant dyads in the UK and 44 mother-infant dyads in Uganda.


Mothers and their babies were followed for full eight-hour days at five time points, when the infants were 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months old. Data about parental attitudes and behaviors were also collected research sessions of up to 4 hours in participants’ homes.

The study revealed that Ugandan mothers had, on average, more relational attitudes toward parenting, whereas UK mothers tended to more strongly focus on autonomy. This translated into certain differences in parenting behaviours: Ugandan infants received more distributed caregiving (i.e. more caregivers), more body contact with their mothers, and more proximity to mothers at night.

However, attitudes toward specific behaviours did not predict infant experience in all contexts.

Contrary to the researchers’ expectations, for instance, Ugandan infants were not in closer proximity to their mothers during the day, did not have more people in proximity or more partners for social interaction compared to UK infants.

Early physical development

Despite the UK mothers’ greater focus on self-development, more of the Ugandan infants showed earlier physical development compared to UK infants.

The authors describe how “infants’ early life environment varies cross-culturally in many important ways” but add that the findings highlight the importance of measuring behavior, rather than extrapolating expected behavior based on attitudes alone.

The authors add: “Most of us know that among our friends and family there can be a lot of variation in attitudes towards parenting -- in our study we looked at this across two samples of participants from quite different backgrounds and looked at how attitudes may or may not match up to infant experience and development.

"We found that cultural attitudes about parenting seem to relate to infant experience in some ways, but not others -- this shows the interaction between attitudes and infant experience is quite complicated and there could be many things that influence infant experience beyond parents attitudes.”