Ravi Ashwin took four wickets with Australia all out for 191 in their first innings to trail India by 53 on second day of the day-night Test in Adelaide on Friday.
India's first innings ended at 244 early in the first session of the day with their last four wickets adding only 11 runs.
They then had Australia all out in 72.1 overs in the final session.
Tim Paine top scored with an unbeaten 73, while Marcus Labuschagne, who was dropped three times, made 47.
Bowling for India, Ravi Ashwin took four for 55.
India will have about 30 minutes batting in their second innings before stumps.