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Country in Focus



  • Capital:Cairo
  • Population:83.39 million (WB, 2014)
  • Languages:Arabic (official), English, French
  • Head of State:President Abdul Fattah Al Sissi


Brief History

Egypt is known to have one of the world’s greatest civilizations. About 2925 BC, Egypt became a unified kingdom, which ushered in cultural achievements and series of native rulers that lasted nearly 3,000 years. An Assyrian invasion occurred that ended the last native dynasty. The country was later on conquered by Romans and Byzantines. The Byzantine’s rule came to an end after armed conflicts with Arabs, which in turn transformed Egypt into an Arab speaking state with Islam as the main religion. Arab caliphs ruled the country until 1250 when Mamluks, a local military caste, took control and established a dynasty that lasted until 1517 when they were then defeated by the Ottoman Turks.Egypt becomes an important transportation hub after the completion of Suez canal in 1869. British occupied the country in 1882 and became a British protectorate in 1914. When a constitutional monarchy was established in 1922, Egypt received a nominal independence. A coup in 1952 overthrew the monarchy, which earned Egypt’s independence from Britain.The country continues to experience a rapid growth in population as well as political transitions. The government struggles to meet the demands of its citizens in terms of economic reforms. The Arab spring led to the removal of Hosni Mubarak from presidential office.In 2012, Mohammad Morsi was elected and a new constitution was passed. However, on July 2013, Morsi was ousted and was replaced by Adly Mansour, who led the interim government. Abdul Fattah Al Sissi was elected president in an election held in May, 2014. ...


Northern Africa

27 00 N, 30 00 E

1,001,450 sq km

Desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta


83.39 million (WB, 2014)



Crude oil
Production: 720,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Exports: 5,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Imports: 48,740 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products
Production: 602,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Exports: 90,050 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Imports: 164,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 61.26 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Exports: 10.51 billion cu m (2011 est.)


GDP (current US$)
$271.97 billion (World Bank, 2013)

GDP growth (annual %)
2% (World Bank, 2013)

7.1% (World Bank, 2012)

GNI per capita (current international $)
  10,790(World Bank, 2013)


Main lines in use: 8.557 million (2012)
Mobile cellular: 96.8 million (2012)


Total: 83 (2013)

Total: 5,083 km

Total: 137,430 km

Total: 3,500 km (includes the Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in Nile Delta; the Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) is navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m) (2011)

Ports and terminals
Major seaport(s): Mediterranean Sea - Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said; Gulf of Suez - Suez
Oil/gas terminal(s): Ain Sukhna terminal, Sidi Kerir terminal


Military branches    
Army, Navy, Egyptian Air Force, Egyptian Air Defense Command (Al Quwwat Al Jawwiya il-Misriya) (2013)
Military service age and obligation   
18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation - 18-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation; voluntary enlistment possible from age 16 (2012)
Manpower available for military service   

Males age 16-49: 21,012,199
Females age 16-49: 20,145,021 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service   

Males age 16-49: 18,060,543
Females age 16-49: 17,244,838 (2010 est.


Egypt and Sudan retain claims to administer the two triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence.

Egypt is developing the Hala'ib Triangle north of the Treaty line; since the attack on Taba and other Egyptian resort towns on the Red Sea in October 2004, Egypt vigilantly monitors the Sinai and borders with Israel and the Gaza Strip.

Egypt does not extend domestic asylum to some 70,000 persons who identify as Palestinians but who largely lack UNRWA assistance and, until recently, UNHCR recognition as refugees.

Complied by Gulf News Archives
Sources: The World Fact Book, World Bank