UAE | Heritage and Culture

'It's Arabic'

What do zero, a giraffe, and alcohol have in common? Not much, other than all these words originate from Arabic, and are part of the huge heritage of language and knowledge that Europe has absorbed from the Arabs over the centuries.

  • Gulf News
  • Published: 00:00 May 28, 2013
  • CARRACK
    CARRACK

    Carrack was a large medieval sailing vessels of between 1400 and 1700, and allowed Sapin, Portugal and England to dominate martime trade at the time. The word came from qurqur, Arabic for a merchant ship, which first moved to the Spanish carraca, before arriving in English.

  • ZIRCON
    ZIRCON

    Zircon is a popular substitute for diamonds when colourless. Zircon is a neso-silicate mineral with a natural color which varies between colorless, yellowgolden, red, brown, blue, and green. the name comes from either the Syriac word zargono, or the arabic word zargun, meaning gold-coloured.

  • VIZIER
    VIZIER

    Comes from an ottoman title for a counsellor to a King or Caliph. It entered English in 1562 from the Turkish Vezir (counsellor), derived from the Arabic wazir (viceroy). There is debate whether the Arabic word, comes from azara (to help); or the Persian vicir (legal document).

  • VARANOID
    VARANOID

    Varanoid is a super family of huge lizards. the definition covers the largest living lizard, the Komodo Dragon, and all the Varanidae of monitors or goanna, and the poisonous Gila monsters. the name comes from the arabic waral which has a variant spelling in algeria of waran.

  • TALISMAN
    TALISMAN

    A talisman is an object that contains certain magical properties that provide good luck for the possessor and offer protection from evil or harm. The word comes from the Arabic word ‘tilsam’, which in turn comes from the late Greek telesma, meaning "completion, or religious rite"

  • REALGAR
    REALGAR

    is arsenic sulphide, which in medieval times was used variously as a rodent poison, as a corrosive, and as a red paint pigment. the name comes from the Arabic for arsenic sulphide, rahj al ghar as it was referred to by ibn Al Baitar in the early 13th century.

  • BALCONY
    BALCONY

    The common word for a building and window structure is derived from the Spanish balcaon. This comes from the Arabic balacona. This Arabic word itself likely derives from the Persian bala 'above' and khana 'house

  • BULBUL
    BULBUL

    They are active, noisy, plain-coloured birds that sometimes damage orchards. Originally borrowed from the Arabic bolbol. Frequently mentioned in poetry as a maker or singer of sweet songs.

  • CHANDLER
    CHANDLER

    Chandler is a maker or seller of candles, when it entered English in the late 14th Century. It subsequently was associated with outfitters of ships. It earlier referred to a person in charge of lighting a household or monastery, from the Latin candelarius, derived from candela in Arabic.

  • BABOUCHE
    BABOUCHE

    a slipper of a style that originated in Morocco and that lacks a heel or quarters. it derives from the French babouche, a combination from the arabic and persian papoosh from pa meaning ‘foot’ and poosh meaning ‘covering’.

  • LISBON
    LISBON

    the capital of modernday Portugal is a city with a long and proud history. Up to the 8th Century, the city was referred to as "Olissipo", which has its origins in the Phoenician words "Allis Ubbo", meaning "enchanting port". its present day name, however, is derived from the arabic name for the city, al-'Isbunah.

  • CASSEROLE
    CASSEROLE

    A casserole is a dish that is often baked or stewed in a covered dish in an oven. It entered English from French, casse, and Spanish, cassa, both meaning a bowl. That derives from the Arabic kasa, the word for cup.

  • LIQUORICE
    LIQUORICE

    Liquorice is an aniseed-flavoured sweet, usually black in colour with a chewy consistency. its name in English is derived from Spanish influences in the 16th century, which in turn are derived from the Arabic al irk alsos, meaning juice made from wild iris.

  • TRIPE
    TRIPE

    Refers to the stomach lining of a cow or sheep and is an acquired taste, requiring long simmering in milk or a similar poaching liquid. it entered English from the Spanish tripa, a derivative of the arabic therb, meaning entrails.

  • AUBERGINE
    AUBERGINE

    Aubergine is an egg-shaped purple vegetable popular in Middle Eastern cooking as well as all over the world. the word came to English from the Catalan alberginia which came from the arabic Al Badinjan.

  • GALANGAL
    GALANGAL

    Galangal is an Asian plant of the ginger family, the rhizome of which is used in cookery and herbal medicine. It comes from the Arabic Kalanjan, which may in turn have come form the Chinese gaoliangjiang, which is based on the two words Gaoliang (a district in Guangdong Province) and jiang (meaning ginger).

  • THUBAN
    THUBAN

    Thuban is a star also known as alpha Draconis in the long and winding constellation of Draco, which is why the star is named after the Arabic for snake, thu’ban. the star is relatively inconspicuous but is historically significant as having been the Pole Star in ancient times, and it is close to the Big Dipper constellation of Ursa Minor.

  • ACRAB
    ACRAB

    Acrab is also called Beta Scorpii and is a multiple star system in the southern constellation of Scorpius. the star has the traditional names of Acrab, Akrab and Elacrab, all of which come from the arabic Al Aqrab, the Scorpion, which also applies to the whole constellation.

  • ACAMAR
    ACAMAR

    Acamar or Theta Eridanim, is a star in the constellation of Eridanus, and was named as the End of the River by Hipparchus and Ptolemy. The name Akhir Al Nahr which means ‘the end of the river’, was used in the catalogue of stars in the Calendarium of Al Achsasi Al Mouakket, translated into Latin as the Postrema Fluminis, entering European astronomy.

  • FARRIER
    FARRIER

    A farrier is someone trained in the art of blacksmith but specifically in making shoes for horses. The word entered English circa 1400 from old French and Spanish from a person who works with horses. It derives from the Arabic word faras, for a horse.

  • TYPHOON
    TYPHOON

    While typhoons strike in the eastern hemisphere, the original word is Arabic - tufan – and entered English use, linguists believe, from Arabic into Urdu in the 16th Century. Tufan is the Arabic word for hurricane. There is a suggestion that the word derives from tai fun, Mandarin for big wind, but that’s generally discounted by scholars.

  • CALIBRE
    CALIBRE

    Calibre first entered English in the early 16th Century as the spread of musketry advanced. It derives from the old Spanish words calibro or calibo, depending on the source, but referring to the weight and width of projectiles. those are derivatives of the Arabic word for a mold used to shape metal, al qalib, or a container.

  • JULEP
    JULEP

    When horseracing fans meet for the Kentucky Derby, mint juleps are the common choice of drink, just as strawberries and cream are consumed at Wimbledon. But julep is an English word derived from the arabic word julab for a fragrant drink or syrup such as rose water. it’s believed to have entered English from arab traders of sugar cane.

  • TOQUE
    TOQUE

    Toque is nowadays considered to be traditional woolen hat favoured by Canadian hockey fans to wear their team colours. It was introduced by French settlers into Quebec who followed their Spanish counterparts in wearing headdresses - toca. That's believed to be derived from the Arabic taqiya - something round with an opening.

  • GAUZE
    GAUZE

    Gauze is a woven material often used for bandages or for clothes of light woven cotton. It derives from the French gais, or Arabic gazz - meaning raw silk. Some suggest Gaza is so named for its association with production and trading of cloth.

  • CARAFE
    CARAFE

    Carafe is a container used to hold water and wine. it first appeared in used in western in used in western Europe language used around 1500, derived from Spanish and Italian. It derives from the Arabic word al ghorraf, a drinking cup made of clay.

  • CARAWAY
    CARAWAY

    Caraway is the fruit of a biennial herb in the parsley family, known as Carum carvi, also know as meridian fennel. It's used in deserts, liquors, casseroles and more commonly found in European cuisine. The word derives from the Arabic al karawiya.

  • AMARETTI
    AMARETTI

    Amaretti are almond-flavoured biscuits from Italy, and amaretto is a brown Italian almond-flavoured drink with a bitter taste. Both take their names from the Italian amarro which in turn comes from the Arabic murr, meaning bitter.

  • MYRRH
    MYRRH

    Myrrh is mine, its bitter perfume breaths a life of gathering gloom; as the famous Christmas carol goes, describing one of the gifts that the three Kings bring to the infant Jesus. the word myrrh comes from the arabic murr, meaning bitter. but also used to describe the myrrh tree and its fragrant gum resin which has been used in medicine and perfumery.

  • ALMUCANTAR
    ALMUCANTAR

    Almucantar is a circle on the celestial sphere parallel to the horizon (ie: two stars on the same almucantar have the same altitude). the word comes from medieval Latin almucantarath which is an almost direct transliteration of the arabic al mukantara, meaning vaulted or arched, and comes from the arabic word kantara meaning arch.

  • ALKANET
    ALKANET

    Alkanet is a plant of the borage family (Alkanna tinctoria), which provides a red dye that is extracted with oils and used to staining wood in imitation of rosewood, or mahogany. The name Alkanet comes from the Arabic al henna, which describes the plant Lawsonia intermis. A medieval confusion meant that Alkanna tinctoria got its name from the same source.

  • ALIZARIN
    ALIZARIN

    Alizarin is a red pigment for clothing which orginally came from the madder root. It was found in clothes in Tutankhamun's tomb and much later it was used in the red coats of the British Army. The word came to English from the French alizarine which in turn came from the Arabic al isara, meaning pressed juice.

  • ALCALDE
    ALCALDE

    Alcalde is a magistrate or mayor in a Spanish or Portuguese town. The word come directly from the Arabic Al Qadi, which means judge and expert in jurisprudence and shows the huge influence that Arabic had on Spanish and Portuguese language and social structures despite the conquests of Ferdinand and Isabella.

  • ALADDIN'S CAVE
    ALADDIN'S CAVE

    Aladdin's Cave is a place filled with a great number of wonders. The phrase comes from a story in the Arabian Nights where the boy Aladdin is befriended by an evil sorcerer who gets him to find a magic lamp which controls a genie, who takes him through many adventures to fame and fortune. His name Aladdin come from Ala ad Din which means Glory of Religion.

  • ALCATRAZ
    ALCATRAZ

    Located in San Francisco harbour, Alcatraz has long been a symbol of the US penal system, supposedly impossible to escape from. The island is named for the gannets that call it home. The first Spanish settlers referred to the gannets as Alcatraz, derived from the Arabic al qatras, from the same birds on the Iberian Peninsula.

  • CALABASH
    CALABASH

    A calabash is a dried out or hardened shell of a pumpkin-like plant that’s used to store wine or other liquids. In Spanish, calabaza means pumpkin or squash, deriving from Arab influence in the Iberian Peninsula. In Arabic qerabat, plural of qerbah, means wineskin.

  • TANGERINES
    TANGERINES

    For the wealth of northern Europe, small and sweet mandarin oranges were most desirable –particularly those imported from the Morocco port of tangiers – known as tangerines. the name of the fruit is a derivative from the arabic name of the city on the sea – Tanja.

  • CAMPHOR
    CAMPHOR

    Long prized for its medicinal qualities, particularly in fighting ailments affect the lungs and air passages, camphor is indigenous to the island of the East Indies, Arabs imported a wood they called kafur and traded it to Europe, where the word camfora in romantic languages of the Mediterranean deriving into camphor in English adaption.

  • EBONY
    EBONY

    Ebony is a dark brown wood that’s long been cherished for its decorative purposes. While the tree native to Sri Lank and southern india, the word entered English from Spanish word abenuz which derives from arab influences in the Iberian Peninsula. the arabic name of the wood is abanus.

  • LIME
    LIME

    Because of their habit in eating limes to prevent scurvy during long sea voyages of the 18th Century, the British were commonly called ‘limeys’. But lime itself derives from the Arabic lumi meaning any tree in the citrus family that bears fruit.

  • BORAZ
    BORAZ

    As an element used in cleaning agents, borax was highly valued by those who dabbled in the sciences of medicine and chemistry in the 18th Century. It was also used in metal crafting and furnaces. Its application was adopted from Arab chemists who were familiar with the Arabic buraq salts.

  • SANDALWOOD
    SANDALWOOD

    The oil of the Sandalwood tree is commonly used for traditional medicines and the wood is deep in yellow colour. It also offers a heavy wood scent favoured in the making of perfumes. The name of the tree derives from the Arabic sandal and imported from the Western Ghats of India.

  • GALA
    GALA

    In today’s English, gala means a glittering affair where the guests appear in their best clothes to honour a person or cause. The English derives from the Spanish word gala, meaning fine clothing worn on special occasions. But the word gala is a derivation of the Arabic word khila, an honorary vestment or a fine garment given as a presentation.

  • MOHAIR
    MOHAIR

    For French gentlemen in the 16th Century, mohair clothing was considered both fashionable and desirable. Its first recorded use in English is in around 1570, referring to finely tailored suits of goat hair. It’s a derivation of the Arabic word al mokhayyar meaning chosen.

  • TARE
    TARE

    In transport terms, tare refers to the empty weight of a commercial vehicle or the weight of an empty container used for shipping. The word derives from the Spanish, tara, itself introduced into the Iberian peninsula from the Arabic al taraha, something which is thrown away, the root word of which is tarah, to throw.

  • MINARET
    MINARET

    A minaret is a tall slender tower, most usually attached to a mosque, where a mu’thin calls Muslims to prayer. it entered English through the Iberian Peninsula and derives from the Arabic manar, meaning a lighthouse, or a tower that holds fire, with nar being the Arabic word for fire.

  • GENIE
    GENIE

    Genie refers to a magical spirit that, in common culture, resides in a bottle and has the power to grant wishes when freed. it entered English folklore through tales of travelers to the Mideast in the 17th Century, deriving from the arabic word jinni.

  • MIZZEN
    MIZZEN

    Mizzen is a second mast behind a ship’s main mast. Some dictionaries claim it is from Latin medianus meaning median, but it is more likely that it comes via Italian from the Arabic mizan meaning balance since the mizzen is a sail that balances.

  • ALMANAC
    ALMANAC

    An almanac is an annual calendar based on astrological movements and a record of times past, often used by farmers and seafarers in relation to planting of crops and maritime conditions respectively. It derives from the Arabic word al-manakh, referring to climate-related activities.

  • TARRAGON
    TARRAGON

    The herb tarragon is closely associated with the flavours of Meditteranean cuisine, most usually along the coastlines of Spain and France. It derives from the Arabic word tarkhun, referring to the plant.

  • HENNA
    HENNA

    This form of decorative body art is most commonly applied to the hands. It first appears in English in the 15th and early 16th Centuries as traders came in contact with the practice during their travels. alkanet is a reddish dye made from the roots of the alcanna plant meaning both "alkanet" and "henna", from arabic al hinna.

  • SODA
    SODA

    Soda first appears in Italian and then English languages in the 11th Century in reference to the saltwort plant which is burnt to make soda ash, a component of glass manufacturing. it derives from the arabic suwwaad or suwayda.

  • MUMMY
    MUMMY

    Long has Hollywood made use of mummies to scare intrepid explorers as they travelled through Egypt and the Middle East. But the word itself refers to the arabic mumiya, meaning both a bitumenlike substance used in embalming, and the process itself. in Western usage, it’s regard as the drying out of remains.

  • CANON
    CANON

    One of the formative books in medieval learning was the Canon of Medicine, comiled in five volumes and completed in 1025 as Al Qanun by Ibn Sina. The English word Canon – meaning set of rules or laws, directly derives from the arabic Al Qanun– law or principles.

  • GARBLE
    GARBLE

    To inspect and remove refuse from spice, which comes from the Arabic gharbala, to sieve or sift; which in turn may have come from the Lation cribellare which means to sieve.

  • ARRAKIS
    ARRAKIS

    Arrakis is the old name for a star in the constellation Draco now called Mu Draconis. The name comes from the Arabic al raqis, meaning "the dancer". Frank Herbert adopted the name for the site for his famous Dune science fiction series.

  • ALGOL
    ALGOL

    Algol is a large star in the constellation Perseus. the name comes from the arabic ras al ghul, meaning head (ras) of the demon (ghul) as the Greek hero Perseus killed the monster Medusa and the star is the eye of Medusa's head.

  • GUADALQUIVIR
    GUADALQUIVIR

    Guadalquivir is Spain’s second longest river, whose name is derived from arabic al wadi al kabir meaning “the Big Valley". the river was the site of the Battle of Baylen when Wellington’s Spanish allies defeated napoleon’s French.

  • ALGARVE
    ALGARVE

    Algarve is a region in southern Portugal where millions go to holiday or retire. its position on the far west of the medieval Muslim on the atlantic coast explains its root, since it comes from al gharb, arabic for the West.

  • RACKET
    RACKET

    Racket is the strung bat with which you play tennis or squash, but the game called rackets is played with only a glove and you hit the ball with the palm of your hand, which is the origin of the word since raha is arabic for palm.

  • EL CID
    EL CID

    El Cid is the nickname of Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar (1043-1099), the national hero of Spain. He was a notable leader in battle who helped expand the Christian territories against the Muslims. His nickname El Cid came from El Sayyid, Arabic for the Lord, although the Spaniards called him El Campeador (the Champion).

  • DRUB
    DRUB

    Drub is to hit or beat something, and comes directly from the arabic darabto hit or strike something. it seems to have come into English in the 1600s with a reference to the punishment of bastinado, canning the soles of someone’s feet.

  • TARBOUSH
    TARBOUSH

    Tarboush is the upright red hat worn by all Syrian and Egyptian gentlemen in the 1800s and early 1900s. However, this Arabic word of the Ottoman era has common roots with the word sarpush, derived from the Persian sar (head) and push (cover).

  • TARIFF
    TARIFF

    Tariff is the duty payable, or a bill of fare. It comes from the Italian tariffa, which in turn comes from the Arabic ta’rifa from arraf, to notify. The Arabic word was used in late medieval times for an inventory on a merchant ship.

  • ALIDADE
    ALIDADE

    Alidade is a modern surveyor's sighting device or pointer for determining directions or measuring angles. The word came into medieval Lation in the late 1400s from the Arabic al idada, which means an upper arm, but also means a pivoting arm.

  • ATTAR
    ATTAR

    Attar is a fragrant essential oil normally made from roses. The word entered English word from India in the late 1700s but originally it came from the Arabic word itr, which means perfume or aroma.

  • ALFALFA
    ALFALFA

    The plant is widespread throughout fertile areas of south east Asia. For millennia it has been used in the preparation of salads or as a feed source for cattle and goats. The word itself is considered to derive from the Arabic word al fasfasa– a green fodder fed to animals.

  • ALHAMBRA
    ALHAMBRA

    Alhambra is in Grenada, Spain, constructed first in 899 as a fortress and later converted into a royal palace in 1333 by Yousef 1, Sultan of Grenada. alhambra derives from the arabic al hamra, meaning “the red” as in the red-colour stones used in its original construction.

  • CAMISE
    CAMISE

    Historically, camise referred to jackets of various kinds. In modern usage a camisole or camise is a loose-fitting sleeveless woman's undergarment which covers the top part of the body. it entered English from old French, inspired by the arabic kameis, meaning shirt.

  • RICE
    RICE

    First introduced into English in the middle of the 13th century, the word "rice" derives from the old French ris, itself a derivative of the Arabic word roz. In Arab cuisine, rice is an ingredient of many soups and dishes with types of meat.

  • PISTACHIO
    PISTACHIO

    Pistachio nuts take their name from the Spanish alfóstigo, which in turn is based on the arabic fustuq which means pistachio. in transmission, the arabic ‘f’ hardened into a ‘p’, and he 'q' softened into a ‘ch’. Fustik is a dye with the same linguistic roots as fustuqi.

  • TABBY
    TABBY

    Tabby is a striped cat with a brindled coat. But this common usage of the word tabby comes from its original meaning in the garment industry to describe a watered silk fabric. English took it from attabi for silk which came from Attabiyah, a quarter of Baghdad where the silk was made.

  • SHERBET
    SHERBET

    Sherbet is one of three words that are based on the arabic word, sharab, meaning ‘drink’. Sherbet means a fruit flavoured fizzy drking, Syrup is normally a thickened sweet drink, and Sorbet is a fruit flavoured ice pudding. they came to English direct from Arabic.

  • SWAHILI
    SWAHILI

    Swahili is a language used on the coast of East africa from Dar E Salam all the way to Somalia. the language is a mix of Bantu and arabic and about one third of its vocabulary is based on arabic. the word Swahili comes from sawahil, meaning coasts, which is the plural of sahil, coast.

  • SERENDIPITY
    SERENDIPITY

    Serendipity comes from Serendip, the Arabic name for Sri Lanka where people are famously happy. It was introduced by Horace Walpole in 1754 in his fairy tale The Three Princes of Serendip. The Arabic name was taken from the Sanskrit name for Sri Lanka: Suvarnadweep

  • MUFTI
    MUFTI

    Mufti is used in English to describe casual clothes by people out of uniform. the word came into English via the British army in the 1800s, when off-duty officers wore Eastern style dressing gowns and tasseled caps, which looked like those worn by a mufti, an islamic legal scholar.

  • LOOFAH
    LOOFAH

    Describes a dry fibrous back-scrubber used in the bath. the word came into English in 1706 as a botanical description of the luffa plant, which produced a large marrow-like fruit with a fibrous skeleton, which was dried. in the 1800s it became the loofah, used by bathers.

  • JAR
    JAR

    As you dig into your honey jar, it is bizarre to know that such a common English word comes from the Arabic jarra, which means a large earthenware container made of pottery. The first records in English come from 1418 and 1421 for olive oil containers.

  • SASH
    SASH

    Sash is the strip of cloth worn over one shoulder. it comes from the arabic shash, meaning a ribbon of gauze or textile which was wrapped around a head to form a turban, usually made of muslin. in modern arabic shash means gauze or muslin.

  • REAM
    REAM

    Ream is a measure of a quantity of sheets of paper. it comes from the arabic rizma, meaning bale or bundle, and the word arrived with the introduction of paper itself from the arab world in the 1100s and 1200s.

  • AZURE
    AZURE

    Azure is a brilliant blue, and has the same root as Lazurite, a rock with a bright blue colour. The Arabic word, lazward, covering both the rock and colour came from Lajward, which was the name of the site of a huge deposit in Afghanistan.

  • AVERAGE
    AVERAGE

    Average comes from the arabic awar, meaning ‘defect or anything damaged’ that was imported into italian in the 1100s as ‘avaria’ which referred to ‘damage or loss during a merchant sea voyage’. in time this moved into French as ‘averie’, and in 1491 was used in English as ‘averay’.

  • ALGORITHM
    ALGORITHM

    Algorithm: The word comes directly from the name of the Arab mathematician, Mohammad Musa Al Khwarizmi, who worked in Baghdad in the 800s. It came into Medieval Latin with a much wider meaning before it became algorismus in the 1200s.

  • ALKALI
    ALKALI

    Alkali comes from the Arabic word Al Qali, which was made up of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate used to make soap and glass. Al Jawhari wrote around 1000 that Al Qali is obtained from glassworts.

  • ASSASSIN
    ASSASSIN

    Assassin comes from Arabic word, Al Hashashoon , meaning a hashish eater. This refers back to the Crusades in the 1200s when the leader of the Nizari branch, who ruled northern Persia, would send followers on targeted killing missions with the drug.

  • CAMEL
    CAMEL

    Camel appears to be a direct transliteration of the arabic jamal, pronounced in some arabic dialects with a hard G, which brings it even closer to the English word camel. However, the word first came through the Greek kamelos, and then Latin camelus to English.

  • IODINE
    IODINE

    Iodine is a chemical element with a deep purple colour and antiseptic qualities, which draws its name from its arabic name, Youd , although some refer the root back to the Greek word, iodes, which means violet colored.

  • TURMERIC
    TURMERIC

    Turmeric is a bright yellow aromatic powder widely used in south Asian cooking. it comes from the rhizome of the turmeric plant, known in Arabic as Kurkum from which the English name is derived.

  • RUKBAH
    RUKBAH

    Rukbah is a star in the 'W' shaped constellation of Cassiopeia, named after the famously beautiful Queen Cassiopeia of classical Greece. the name is originally from arabic rukbah "knee", but this is only one of the famous queen's body parts with an arabic name.

  • COFFEE
    COFFEE

    The coffee tree is native to Sudan and Ethiopia. The word coffee derives from the Turkish word kahve and the Arabic word qahwah, which means any stimulating drink, according to Larousse Gastronomique.

  • FOMALHAUT
    FOMALHAUT

    Fomalhaut also known as Alpha Piscisaustrini, is the brightest star in the fish-shaped constellation Piscis. the name Fom Al Hoot comes from scientific Arabic fam Al Hoot (Al Janubi) "the mouth of the [Southern] Fish"

  • COUSCOUS
    COUSCOUS

    This popular dish is indigenous to North Africa and used hard semolina. While recipes and variations occur across the region, depending on the spices and meat available, it derives directly from the Arabic kouskous, according to Larousse Gastronomique.

  • WASAT
    WASAT

    Wasat is the traditional name for Delta Geminorum in the zodiac constellation Gemini, made up of the two twins Castor and Pollux. Wasat lies at the centre of Castor, which gives it its arabic name wasat, which means "middle".

  • CRIMSON
    CRIMSON

    Crimson is a deep red colour that originates from the red that infest the kermes oak, native to the Mediterranean area. It comes from old Spanish cremesin, which is derived from the Arabic qurmuz.

  • DENEB
    DENEB

    Deneb is the brightest star in the swan-shaped constellation Cygnus, and is a direct transliteration of dhanab, the Arabic for "tail", from the phrase Dhanab Al Dajaja, or "tail of the hen".

  • ARAK
    ARAK

    Arak is a strong alcoholic with aniseed. according to Larousse Gastronomique, the work is derived from araq, meaning sweat. it is widely consumed across the Middle East, Southern Europe and south East asia.

  • ALEMBIC
    ALEMBIC

    Alembic is a copper pot used in distillation, deriving from the arabic al’ inbiq. the traditional alembic is made up of a boiler, a cap where vapours collect, and a bent pipe which is cooled to collect the distillate, according to Larousse Gastronomique.

  • UMMA
    UMMA

    Umma is the entire community of Muslims bound together by the ties of religion, according to the oxford English dictionary. It is a direct use of the Arabic umma, which means people or community.

  • TELL
    TELL

    Tell is an archeological term that refers to the buildup of settlements, one on top of another. according to the oxford English Dictionary, tell word derives from arabic tal, meaning a small hill.

  • TAGINE
    TAGINE

    Tagine refers to an earthenware cone-shaped cooking pot used almost exclusively in North African cooking. It is derived from the Arabic word tajin or frying pan.

  • ALTAIR
    ALTAIR

    Altair is the brightest star in the constellation Aquila (Eagle in Latin). the name altair is an abbreviation of the arabic al Nisr Al Ta’ir, the Flying Eagle, which was used in 1650 by the Egyptian astronomer Mohammad al akhsasi.

  • ERG
    ERG

    Erg is a geographical term used in the Sahara Desert to describe an area of shifting sand. It comes from the Arabic ‘arq, meaning a line of sand dunes. Its basic use in Arabic refers to a blood vein or the root of a plant, and subsequently undulating lines of dunes.

  • ALDERBAN
    ALDERBAN

    Alderban is a bright red star in the middle of the zodiac constellation of Taurus. The name aldebaran comes from the arabic al Dabaran, which means the Follower, because this bright star appears to fpllow the constellation of the Pleides, or the Seven Sisters, in the night sky.

  • NADIR
    NADIR

    Nadir is the direct opposite of zenith, and is the lowest point of any celestial object’s orbit. It also uses the Arabic for pathway, with al samt, as its root, but in this case it is nazir al samt, meaning the opposite on the pathway.

  • ZENITH
    ZENITH

    Zenith is the highest point in the sky of a celestial object, and comes from the same root as azimuth, Al Samt meaning path, which in this case was known as samt al ras (path over the head) which was adopted into old French as cenit, before becoming zenith in English.

  • AZIMUTH
    AZIMUTH

    azimuth is derived from The arabic words zawiyat al samt and is the horizontal part of the direction of a star from the observer, and comes from al samt, meaning path or direction. it is one of many astronomica l terms that came into Medieval Europe from science in the arab world.

  • JUMPER
    JUMPER

    A sweater or pullover derived from a sailor’s loose outer jacket. the word arrived in English via the old French adaptation of the arabic word jubba, meaning a robe that can be worn by either sex, the oxford English dictionary says.

  • GERBIL
    GERBIL

    There are approximately 150 species of gerbil or desert rats, which are native to North Africa, India and Eastern Asia. In Arabic, the rodents are called jarbu. They spread, along with their usage, into the Iberian Peninsula, with jarbu being distorted into gerbil in old French.

  • MACRAME
    MACRAME

    The embroidery form macrame in English has been adopted from both Spanish and French usage describing satin and silks which were heavily embroidered or bejeweled. in arabic, miqrama refers to an embroidered veil and its meaning spread through trade in textiles.

  • SIROCCO
    SIROCCO

    Sirocco refers to a wind that blows across the north african desert from the east. it’s a Spanish derivative of the word sharqiyyah or eastern in arabic. By the 16th Century, sirocco was adopted from Spanish into English to describe warm easterly winds.

  • ALBATROSS
    ALBATROSS

    To early Arab mariners and voyagers, the bird with the largest wingspan was impressive in the manner in which it dove into the Al Ghattas means diver, with Albatross being a derivative, spreading through the seaboards of western Europe.

  • MONSOON
    MONSOON

    Monsoon rains occur in the period between June and September in southeast Asia. Monsoon derives from the Arabic word mawsim meaning season. The word was adopted into English as a result of mid-to-late 18th century English travellers to the Indian subcontinent.

  • ALCOVE
    ALCOVE

    Alcove derives from the Arabic word A l Qubbah which refers to a vault, as in a vaulted ceiling or dome. Islamic architectural style and engineering was introduced into Andalusia on the Iberian Peninsula before being copied throughout medieval Europe.

  • MATTRESS
    MATTRESS

    The word mattress derives from the Arabic word matrah, meaning a large cushion or soft rug to lie upon. It came to English use in the 14th Century after spreading from Spain into France at the turn of the 10th Century

  • SUMAC
    SUMAC

    Sumac derives from the Arabic word summaq. Its components have been historically used to spice food, in leather making and the dyeing of cloths and as a traditional herbal medicine for stomach ailments.

  • SPINACH
    SPINACH

    Spinach derives from isfanakh in eastern classical Arabic, later evolving to spanekh in Arabic. It was introduced by Arabs to Spain around 10th century, from where it spread to the rest of Europe.

  • ORANGE
    ORANGE

    Descends from the Arabic word naranj and the tree itself is native to India. Arabs introduced the orange tree to the Mediterranean region in the early 10th century and was brought to Western Europe by returning Crusaders.

  • CUMIN
    CUMIN

    Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum, a member of the parsley family and derives from the Arabic word kammun. It was first introduced to Europe in the 12th and 13th Centuries.

  • SAFFRON
    SAFFRON

    The origin of the word saffron is derived from the Arabic word zafaraan, meaning ‘yellow’ and has been used as a colouring and spice in foods for at least 3,000 years.

  • AMBER
    AMBER

    The English word amber derives from the Arabic anbar, via Medieval Latin ambar and Old French ambre. Amber is used as an ingredient in perfumes, as a healing agent in folk medicine, and as jewelry.

  • LEMON
    LEMON

    Lemons - laymoon in Arabic - are native to India and China and introduced to Persia, Iraq and Egypt around 700 AD. The lemon was first recorded in literature in 10th century Arabic treatise on farming, and was also used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens.

  • TRAFALGAR
    TRAFALGAR

    Trafalgar is where Admiral Nelson won the most famous sea battle in British history, off Cape Trafalgar which sticks into the Atlantic from southern Spain. The Arabs called this cape Taraf Al Gharb, the Uttermost West, as it was the most western point of their dominions.

  • WADI
    WADI

    Wadi is Arabic for valley. However, it has been in common parlance for centuries via Spanish, and perhaps most famously as the site of some of Wellington’s toughest fighting against Napoleonic forces near the Portuguese river Guadalquivir, the wadi Al Kabir.

  • SUGAR
    SUGAR

    Sugar - Sukkar in Arabic - was a rare and special commodity in medieval Europe which used honey as a sweetener, which makes it a treat. The first recorded uses of sugar in English was at a monastery in Durham in 1302 when a monk recorded the storage of zuker marok, or Moroccan sugar.

  • ARTICHOKE
    ARTICHOKE

    Artichoke is the Arabic Kharshoof, which was borrowed by the Spanish in 1423 as carchiofa and by the Italians in 1525 as carciofo, before changing to the French artichault in 1538 and the English artochock in 1591.

  • APRICOT
    APRICOT

    Apricot comes from the Arabic barqooq, which in turn came from Byzantine Greek, which took it from classical Latin praecoqua, meaning precocious ripening peaches. The Arabs passed the word (and fruit) to the Portuguese (albricoque) and Catalan (albercoc), before it finally arrived in English in 1578 as abrecox.

  • ALCOHOL
    ALCOHOL

    Alcohol comes from Kohl, finely powdered stibnite used as eye make up. The word entered Latin in the 1200s meaning well ground material, and in later medieval alchemy it moved to define any purified material or ‘quintessence; from which it was a short lexicographical step to 'alcohol.'

  • MUSLIN
    MUSLIN

    Muslin is a lightweight cotton cloth in a plain weave that came from Mosul in Iraq, where it was first manufactured. The city gave its name to the cloth which the Italians called mussoline, and the French mousseline.

  • COTTON
    COTTON

    Cotton comes from the Arabic qutn, which came to the Arab world from India after Alexander the Great opened up the markets in 300 BC. When the medieval Arabs traded cotton into Europe, it was so soft it was assumed that it must be an animal product like wool.

  • PARROT
    PARROT

    Parrot finds its origins in the Arabic babbagha, which arrived in Old French in the 1100s as papegai, as the ‘B’ in babbagha swapped to become ‘P’ as frequently happens (like in other Arabic origin words like apricot, calipers, julep, and syrup).

  • HAREM
    HAREM

    Harem is a direct transliteration of the Arabic hareem, meaning women’s quarters in a large household, although the root is the Arabic haram meaning forbidden which indicated the fact that men were not allowed into the women’s area.

  • CARAT
    CARAT

    Carat is a unit of weight for precious stones, and may well come from the Arabic world qirat, defined as the weight of one twenth-fourth of a medieval Arab gold dinar, or the weight of four barley seeds. But the Arabic word seems to have its origin in the Greek keration which may also be an origin for the English carat.

  • SAFARI
    SAFARI

    Safari is a Kiswahili word to describe a trip into the wilds of Africa to watch (or hunt) animals, which started in the 1800s in Kenya. The Swahili took the word directly from the Arabic safra, to travel, and is one of many Arabic words used in East Africa.

  • GHOUL
    GHOUL

    Ghoul is a terrible ghost, which comes from the Arabic ghool, and first appeared in Europe in 1712 in a French translation of the Arabian Nights. By the 1800s ghouls were frequently popping up in English translations of Arabian Nights, and became part of the language.

  • CANDY
    CANDY

    Candy is a general word for any sweet, but it only arrived in English in 1600s, from the Arabic qand, meaning a hard crystalised mass of sugar, which in turn came from Persian, and in its turn from Sanskrit since cane sugar was developed in India.

  • GIBRALTAR
    GIBRALTAR

    Gibraltar is an Arabic name, Jabal Tariq, meaning Mountain of Tariq, after the famous Omayyad general, Tariq Bin Ziad, who led the first Islamic conquest of Spain in 711. Until the Arabs got there, Gibraltar was known as Mons Calpe, one the Pillars of Hercules

  • MAGAZINE
    MAGAZINE

    Magazine is a military store, and it comes from the Arabic makhazin, based on khazan (meaning to store) with the ma- prefix indicating a noun of place. It was first recorded in Marseilles in 1228 as a general store house, but English has always used it as a military store for gunpowder or bullets.

  • SHUFTI
    SHUFTI

    Shufti: “Take a shufti” is how thousands of English soldiers described ‘taking a look’ when they were posted to Second World War Cairo or later in South Yemen in the 1950s and 1960s, taking the word back to Britain with them. It is derived from the Arabic word shofti.

  • LUTE
    LUTE

    Lute is a direct transliteration of Oud, which is the Arabic for the same instrument. Musicians might argue about how many strings are appropriate, but Spain had its alod in the 1200s, and the first definite English reference was by the late 1300s.

  • CHEMISTRY
    CHEMISTRY

    Started with Al Kimya'a, meaning alchemy, which is how it arrived in Europe in a book by Plato Tiburtinus, after which the medieval skills of alchemy gave way to the modern disciplines of chemistry.

  • ARSENAL
    ARSENAL

    Arsenal is based on Dar Al Sina’a, the House of Manufacturing, and was first used in English in the Fifteenth Century, when it described a dock-yard for repairing ships, which meaning is still used by the Italians with the fuller word darsana.

  • ALGEBRA
    ALGEBRA

    Algebra comes from Al Jabr, meaning to restore broken parts. Its mathematical meaning started with the definitive tome, Al-kitāb al-mukhta’ar fī’isāb al-jabr wa al-muqābala, by the 9th century mathematician Al Khawarizmi.

  • GIRAFFE
    GIRAFFE

    Giraffe - was known to the Arabic lexicographer, Jawahiri, as Al Zarafa, which he rather briefly dismissed as “a type of creature’. Later biologists linked the name more firmly to the long-necked beast of Africa which we all know today.

  • ADMIRAL
    ADMIRAL

    Admiral - comes from the Arabic word Amir Al Bihar, meaning Commander of the Seas, which was a first title used in Norman Sicily. The ‘D’ was added in Elizabethan England, by court officials ignorant of Arabic. The French still use amiral.

Comments (109)

  1. Added 08:46 June 9, 2013

    Amazing to know where the words come from, and its so much help people to understood how Arabic so great and had important language in the world, keep continue to expose other words.....thank you.

    Kyung Aa, Abu Dhabi, Korea, Democratic People'S Republic Of

  2. Added 23:53 June 6, 2013

    Would like to add a few to the list: -Camera this word was driven from the arabic 'kumra' meaning 'room' from 10 century muslim scientist, since he invented the camera in a room like settings -Cipher this word is driven from the arabic 'sifr' meaning 'zero' -Cave another arabic word for 'Kahaf' -California some say that this is driven from the arabic work 'Khalifa', but it is not authenticated

    Bobby, USA, United States

  3. Added 15:34 June 3, 2013

    Quite opinionated. It is so funny; Arabic does not have the phoneme /g/ as it is used in the word goat. How comes then that Zircon comes from Zargun which is claimed to be an Arabic word. "Zar" in Persian means gold and "gun" means like or similar to. So "zargun" means gold like. Not worth reading!

    Mohammad, Kuwait, Kuwait

  4. Added 09:11 May 31, 2013

    Arabic is a very beautiful language. No other language is like it! Everyone should definately try learning it, especially those living in Gulf countries.

    Kokab Rahman, Manama, Bahrain

  5. Added 10:34 May 27, 2013

    I thought TYPHOON has come from chinese word TaiPhung. Interesting to know it has come from Persian word.

    Sunjay, Dubai, Korea, Republic Of

  6. Added 18:13 May 24, 2013

    more than half these words are persian or sanskrit

    soheil, manchester, United Kingdom

  7. Added 11:31 May 13, 2013

    There is a ground engineering term used in classification of soil called Sabkha (صبخة) which is obviously of Arabic origin. It means soils with high percentage of fines and salt normaly formed at ground surface. It is hard when dry but very weak when wet.

    Dr Ala Sainak, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

  8. Added 10:35 May 11, 2013

    There is no point of quarreling in Between Arabic or Persian , Turkish or Sanskrit or Hebrew. The point is the old languages of the worlds are these and almost from same (neighboring) Areas. Languages are always like mix plate. The Best Example is Sub Continent. English is relatively new language, but the most powerful....lingua franca

    Rajpoot, UAE, United Arab Emirates

  9. Added 07:02 April 30, 2013

    Zero...Huh...It came from sanskrit word Sunya.

    Bansman, fransw, Estonia

  10. Added 19:45 April 26, 2013

    With my hopes of visiting the UAE late this summer, I found this article very informative and interesting. Thank you.

    Jeff Fisher, Leesburg, United States

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